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Progas - Calculation Tool for Caloric and Dynamic Properties of Mixtures of Real Natural Gases

Demo Video Whats New Userguide Trial Version

Calculation Features

Range of Application
Range of Application

  • Optional flow calculation all devices in ISO 5167-2003 (DIN EN ISO 5167-2004)
    • Orifice with corner tapping
    • Orifice with flange tapping
    • Orifice with D and D/2 tapping
    • ISA 1932 nozzle
    • Long radius nozzle
    • Venturi nozzle
    • Classical venturi tube with »as cast« convergent section
    • Classical venturi tube with machined convergent section
    • Classical venturi tube with rough-welded sheet-iron convergent section
    • Calibrated or standard discharge coefficient
    • Diameter correction for temperature

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Demo Video

How to extract the package and make the first run [3:13]

About the Software

Fuel consumption and fuel heat input belong to the most sensitive parameters in today's gas turbine operation. For large consumers and power plants 0.1% difference in heat rate can have hundreds of thousands of dollars impact on fuel costs within just one year, which is also why penalties to manufacturers are extraordinary high when not meeting the heat rate guarantees. Gas turbine operators are well advised to have their own calculation tool, being able to crosscheck thermal performance, but also monthly bills coming from gas suppliers.

Of course there are enough other reasons for engineers to stay up to date with natural gas properties.

I have developed this application to have a light-weight, easy to use and fast calculation for real gas properties. The calculator executable works on Command Prompt level and therefore on any Windows NT-based operating system including Windows 2000, XP, Vista, Windows 7, Windows 8, 32-Bit and 64-Bit. There is no installation required. The application runs out of the box, and it does not touch the registry. Input and Output files are ASCII Text. Other applications can easily call the tool and further process the produced results. For manual handling of the input file a comfortable text editor with overwrite option is recommended e.g. Notepad2.

Real gas density vs. ideal gas density

The effect of compression factor tells that the real gas density is higher than the ideal gas density, typically by 1...5%. Ideal gas density neglects the compression factor.

equation 2.1 (2.1)
ρ
real gas density [kg/m³]
M
molar mass [kg/mol]
p
absolute gas pressure [Pa = N/m²]
R
universal gas constant: 8.31451 J/(mol·K) = 8.31451 (N·m)/(mol·K)
Rs
specific gas constant [J/(kg·K)]
z
compression factor: typical values 0.95...0.99, in ideal gas z = 1.0
T
absolute temperature [K]

Real gas enthalpy vs. ideal gas enthalpy

Real gas enthalpy being part of the overall heat input is smaller than ideal gas enthalpy. Example with gas 4 and 0°C/ 0.101325 MPa reference conditions.

equation 2.2 (2.2)

Ideal gas enthalpy calculates just with the temperature difference and a typical heat capacity of 2.3 kJ/(kg·K).

equation 2.3 (2.3)

The real heat input in this example is 0.18% lower.

HI
heat input [kW = kJ/s]
m
fuel gas mass flow [kg/s]
LHV
Low heat value combustion at 0 °C [kJ/kg]
Δh
real gas enthalpy difference between metering pressure and temperature and reference conditions [kJ/kg]
cp
heat capacity for the ideal gas (depending only on temperature) [kJ/(kg·K)]
ΔT
difference between metering temperature and reference temperature [K]

Upgrades

Buyers are entitled to receive free upgrades and may register for e-mail notification when a new release becomes available. An excel add-in is planned for example.

Details latest release

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Validation

The main feature of the tool is ISO 20765, which is state of the art calculation for real natural gas mixtures. The tool is validated versus published example calculations provided in Annex G of ISO 20765-1:2005 for Gas 3 and Gas 4.

Heat values and flow calculations are validated and can be checked with published example calculations or little manual effort.

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Sample Input File

GAS 4 ISO 20765-1 2005(E)
100.0       ,'=  gas pressure................................................[bar absolute]'
76.85       ,'=  gas temperature....................................................[deg C]'
0.432       ,'=  pressure drop across flow element..............0 no flow calculation.[bar]'
0.2025      ,'=  pipe diameter..........................................................[m]'
22.3        ,'=  pipe diameter reference temperature................................[deg C]'
11          ,'=  pipe material....10NOcorr 11steel1 12steel2 13steel3 14steel4 15steel5.[-]'
0.1229      ,'=  flow element diameter orifice/nozzle/venturi nozzle/venturi tube.......[m]'
8.33        ,'=  flow element diameter reference temperature........................[deg C]'
15          ,'=  flow element material..16steel6 17SnBz4 18E-Cu 19Rg9 20Ms63 21Ni 22HaC.[-]'
0.6002      ,'=  discharge coefficient 1 from calibration..............0 no calibration.[-]'
0.6004      ,'=  discharge coefficient 2 from calibration...............................[-]'
0.61305D5   ,'=  reynoldsnumber 1 from calibration with pipe diameter...................[-]'
0.68345D7   ,'=  reynoldsnumber 2 from calibration with pipe diameter...................[-]'
0           ,'=  calorific values at 0iso0 1iso15 2iso20 3iso25 4din 5astm60............[-]'
0           ,'=  gas composition given in..........................0[mol%] 1[vol%] 2[wght%]'
3           ,'=  flow element.1ORcor 2ORfla 3ORdd2 4NOisa 5NOlra 6VEnoz 7VTasc 8VTmac 9VTrw'
9.5         ,'=  (1)   ,%,H2...........hydrogen                                 '
0.02        ,'=  (2)   ,%,He...........helium                                   '
0.01        ,'=  (3)   ,%,H2O..........water vapor                              '
1.0         ,'=  (4)   ,%,CO...........carbon monoxide                          '
10.         ,'=  (5)   ,%,N2...........nitrogen                                 '
0.01        ,'=  (6)   ,%,O2...........oxygen                                   '
0.01        ,'=  (7)   ,%,H2S..........hydrogen sulfide                         '
0.01        ,'=  (8)   ,%,Ar...........argon                                    '
1.6         ,'=  (9)   ,%,CO2..........carbon dioxide                           '
73.50       ,'=  (10)  ,%,CH4..........methane                                  '
3.3         ,'=  (11)  ,%,C2H6.........ethane                                   '
0.74        ,'=  (12)  ,%,C3H8.........propane                                  '
0.08        ,'=  (13)  ,%,i-C4H10......iso-butane                               '
0.08        ,'=  (14)  ,%,n-C4H10......n-butane                                 '
0.          ,'=  (15)  ,%,neo-C5H12....neo-pentane                              '
0.04        ,'=  (16)  ,%,i-C5H12......iso-pentane                              '
0.04        ,'=  (17)  ,%,n-C5H12......n-pentane                                '
0.02        ,'=  (18)  ,%,n-C6H14......n-hexane                                 '
0.01        ,'=  (19)  ,%,n-C7H16......n-heptane                                '
0.01        ,'=  (20)  ,%,n-C8H18......n-octane                                 '
0.01        ,'=  (21)  ,%,n-C9H20......n-nonane                                 '
0.01        ,'=  (22)  ,%,n-C10H22.....n-decane                                 '
0.          ,'=  (23)  ,%,SO2..........sulfur dioxide                           '
0.          ,'=  (24)  ,%,c-C5H10......cyclopentane                             '
0.          ,'=  (25)  ,%,c-C6H12......cyclohexane                              '
0.          ,'=  (26)  ,%,CH3-C5H9.....methylcyclopentane                       '
0.          ,'=  (27)  ,%,CH3-C6H11....methylcyclohexane                        '
0.          ,'=  (28)  ,%,2,2-i-C6H14..2,2-dimethylbutane                       '
0.          ,'=  (29)  ,%,2,3-i-C6H14..2,3-dimethylbutane                       '
0.          ,'=  (30)  ,%,C6H6.........benzene                                  '
0.          ,'=  (31)  ,%,C7H8.........toluene                                  '
0.          ,'=  (32)  ,%,o-C8H10......o-xylene                                 '

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screenshot
Screen-shot DOS Window - The calculation terminated successfully

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Sample Output File

PROGAS (Version 7-Jul-2014) Calculation for Mixtures of Real Gases 07-Jul-2014 21:59:02

GAS 4 ISO 20765-1 2005(E)

Actual Gas Conditions
Pressure      100.00 bar a = 1450.38 psia
Temperature    76.85 deg C =  170.33 deg F =  350.00 K

Sum of Given Gas Composition = 100.0000 Mol%

Results                             Mol%    Vol%   Wght%

Hydrogen.....................H2   9.5000  9.5310  1.1059
Helium.......................He   0.0200  0.0201  0.0046
Water Vapor.................H2O   0.0100  0.0093  0.0104
Carbon Monoxide..............CO   1.0000  1.0020  1.6175
Nitrogen.....................N2  10.0000 10.0216 16.1769
Oxygen.......................O2   0.0100  0.0100  0.0185
Hydrogen Sulfide............H2S   0.0100  0.0099  0.0197
Argon........................Ar   0.0100  0.0100  0.0231
Carbon Dioxide..............CO2   1.6000  1.5935  4.0663
Methane.....................CH4  73.5000 73.5185 68.0926
Ethane.....................C2H6   3.3000  3.2757  5.7303
Propane....................C3H8   0.7400  0.7263  1.8844
iso-Butane..............i-C4H10   0.0800  0.0768  0.2685
n-Butane................n-C4H10   0.0800  0.0768  0.2685
neo-Pentane...........neo-C5H12   0.0000  0.0000  0.0000
iso-Pentane.............i-C5H12   0.0400  0.0376  0.1667
n-Pentane...............n-C5H12   0.0400  0.0368  0.1667
n-Hexane................n-C6H14   0.0200  0.0179  0.0995
n-Heptane...............n-C7H16   0.0100  0.0083  0.0579
n-Octane................n-C8H18   0.0100  0.0074  0.0660
n-Nonane................n-C9H20   0.0100  0.0061  0.0741
n-Decane...............n-C10H22   0.0100  0.0044  0.0822
Sulfur Dioxide..............SO2   0.0000  0.0000  0.0000
Cyclopentane............c-C5H10   0.0000  0.0000  0.0000
Cyclohexane.............c-C6H12   0.0000  0.0000  0.0000
Methylcyclopentane.....CH3-C5H9   0.0000  0.0000  0.0000
Methylcyclohexane.....CH3-C6H11   0.0000  0.0000  0.0000
2,2-Dimethylbutane..2,2-i-C6H14   0.0000  0.0000  0.0000
2,3-Dimethylbutane..2,3-i-C6H14   0.0000  0.0000  0.0000
Benzene....................C6H6   0.0000  0.0000  0.0000
Toluene....................C7H8   0.0000  0.0000  0.0000
o-xylene................o-C8H10   0.0000  0.0000  0.0000
                            Sum 100.000 100.000 100.000

Ultimate Analysis in Weight%
C=59.9415 H=19.9273 O= 3.9081 N=16.1769 S= 0.0185 HE= 0.0046 AR= 0.0231
C+H+O+N+S+HE+AR = 100.0001


Molar   Mass    = 17.3170 kg/kmol
Gas  Constant   = 480.135 J/(kg*K)
Low  Heat Value =  39.729 MJ/kg = 17081. BTU/lb
High Heat Value =  44.185 MJ/kg = 18996. BTU/lb

Pressure                    1.013bar  1.013bar  1.013bar  14.73psi    Actual
Temperature                 0.  degC  15. degC  25. degC  60. degF    Actual
------------------------------------+---------+---------+---------+---------+
Wobbe Lower Index    MJ/m3    39.747    37.668
Wobbe Upper Index    MJ/m3    44.204    41.892
Low Heat Value       MJ/m3    30.755    29.144    28.161    29.155  2480.543
Low Heat Value     BTU/ft3     825.4     782.2     755.8     782.5   66575.3
High Heat Value      MJ/m3    34.204    32.412    31.319    32.425  2758.736
High Heat Value    BTU/ft3     918.0     869.9     840.6     870.2   74041.7
Density              kg/m3    0.7741    0.7336    0.7088    0.7338   62.4360
Density             lb/ft3    0.0483    0.0458    0.0443    0.0458    3.8979
Relative Density       [-]    0.5987    0.5986
Compression Factor     [-]   0.99803   0.99839   0.99859   0.99840   0.95309
Internal Energy      kJ/kg  -182.385  -159.342  -143.749  -158.483  -106.063
Enthalpy             kJ/kg   -51.494   -21.214    -0.799   -20.087    54.101
Entropy          kJ/(kg*K)    0.2860    0.3939    0.4636    0.3967   -1.5311
Heat Capacity cp kJ/(kg*K)    2.0058    2.0321    2.0512    2.0331    2.5087
Heat Capacity cv kJ/(kg*K)    1.5206    1.5475    1.5671    1.5486    1.7374
Isentropic Exponent    [-]    1.3165    1.3110    1.3071    1.3108    1.4123
Joule Thomson Coeff. K/bar    0.4627    0.4137    0.3845    0.4120    0.1996
Speed of Sound         m/s   415.105   425.537   432.263   425.915   475.610
Dynamic Viscosity Pa*s*E-6    10.954    11.477    11.821    11.496    15.329
HeatCircuitCapacityW/(m*K)    0.0286    0.0306    0.0320    0.0307    0.0462

ISO 6976-1995 for Molar Mass and Calorific Values at 0degC
ISO 20765-1 2005 for Thermodynamic Properties
ISO 5167-2003 for Flow Calculation

Flow Element Diameter 123.05 mm (122.90 mm at   8.33 degC Steel 5)
Pipe Diameter         202.64 mm (202.50 mm at  22.30 degC Steel 1)
Diameter Ratio          0.6072
Pressure Difference     0.4320 bar  =  6.2656 psi
Calibrated Discharge Coefficient
Calibration differs from ISO standard formulae by   -0.83 %
Orifice with D and D/2 Tapping
Mass Flow               =  17.817 kg/s
Kinematic Viscosity     =   0.24551E-06 m2/s
Reynolds Number (dPipe) =   0.73032E+07 [-]
Discharge Coefficient   =   0.60041 [-]
Flow Coefficient        =   0.64592 [-]
Expansion Factor        =   0.99877 [-]
Mach number             =   0.0505 [-]

http://progas.axelebert.org

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Order Information, Payment, Prepare the First Run

Before ordering make sure you have tested the trial version and you are satisfied with it.

To order you have to agree to the Terms and Conditions and provide your complete name, postal address and valid email address.

Commercial license for the executable: 390 EUR

The commercial license can be used by any individual on any machine within the purchasing company/organization. The license is perpetual for the licensed version of the software. License transfer is prohibited.

Payment Options

  • Pre-payment to German bank account - recommended, if your bank supports SEPA transactions (Single Euro Payments Area - European Union, Iceland, Norway, Switzerland, Liechtenstein, Monaco). Bank account data (IBAN and BIC) and a reference number will be submited. A SEPA transaction should not cost more than a domestic transfer in EUR.
  • Pre-payment to Swiss bank account - recommended, if you live in Switzerland or Liechtenstein. Bank account data, a reference number and the equivalent fee in Swiss Francs (Interbank Rate) will be submitted.
  • Pre-payment via credit card and PayPal. A web - link will be submitted.

The order is without obligation until reception of payment. After reception of payment a download link for the software is sent to the email address which has been used for the order. Please allow 1 working day. After having sent the download link for the software the licence fee cannot be refunded.

Order Form

Prepare the First Run

The download link goes to a zipped folder (appr. 400 kB). It has to be saved to the local computer and unzipped. There is a short video demonstration how to do that.

The following files are in the unzipped folder

The software is ready for use. Just call progas.bat or the executable progas.exe

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Terms and Conditions

Axel Ebert is the developer and exclusive copyright holder of PROGAS documents and software (the Materials). The copyright holder reserves all rights.

The Materials are provided by the copyright holder under the following license. By obtaining, using and/or copying this work, you (the licensee) agree that you have read, understood, and will comply with the following terms and conditions.

Unless otherwise expressly stated, you may not reproduce the Materials in any form or by any means without the prior written permission of the copyright holder. The Materials are copyrighted and any unauthorized use of the Materials may violate copyright, trademark, and other laws.

This is a license, not a transfer of title, and is subject to the following restrictions: You may not: (a) modify the Materials or use them for any public display, performance, sale or rental; (b) decompile, reverse engineer, or disassemble the Materials except and only to the extent permitted by applicable law; (c) remove any copyright or other proprietary notices from the Materials; or (d) transfer the Materials to another person. You agree to prevent any unauthorized copying of the Materials.

The developer has made his best effort to deliver a reliable version of this software and to verify the calculations contained herein on the basis of sound scientific judgment.

However, the developer does not warrant or assume any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, text, graphics, product, process or other items contained within these Materials disclosed. The developer will not be liable for any direct, indirect, special or consequential damages arising out of any use of the software or documentation.

The developer may make changes to these Materials, or to the products described therein, at any time without notice. The developer makes no commitment to update the Materials.

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Downloads

Progas Userguide

pg_readme.pdf [PDF 274 kB] updated 7-July-2014

Trial Version with fixed Methane content

Progas_Trial.zip [ZIP 392 kB] updated 7-Jul-2014 [MD5 checksum progas.exe caa5c6311f9ad5e023815c7803894fa5]

Example gas 1 ISO 20765-1

Text Icon Input Input | Output ISO 6976-1995 at25°C, Orifice calibrated, D&D/2, temperature correction

Example gas 3 ISO 20765-1

Text Icon Input Input | Output ASTM-D3588-1998 at 60F, Orifice standard, Corner Tapping, no temperature correction

Example gas 4 ISO 20765-1

Text Icon Input Input | Output Example gas 4 ISO 20765-1, ISO 6976-1995 at 0°C

Example gas 5 ISO 20765-1

Text Icon Input Input | Output Classical Venturi Tube with machined convergent section

Example gas ISO 6976

Text Icon Input Input | Output Heat values at 15°C and 101.325 kPa